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Database version: 0.98
Script version: 1.22
Modified: 21-11-2008

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Leaders:

Alexander

Starting technologies:

Advanced Flight Cost: 5000
+48 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 10000.
                  Little did the Wright Brothers know that less than four decades after their first plane touched down in the North Carolinian sand, aeronautical engineers would have already created a completely new way to power flight - the jet engine. This new engine, based on a turbine churning ultra-compressed air, lifted aviation to previously unreachable heights.

Applied to fixed-wing aircraft, the jet engine found its first application in World War II, powering the German Messerschmitt. In these machines, the jet engine increased speed by lowering the overall weight of the craft while providing a level of power unattainable in propeller-based engines. Modern jets, like the SR-71 Blackbird, are capable of speeds of over 2000 mph.

The jet engine would find further application in the creation of the helicopter. While Leonardo da Vinci had sketched prototypes of a rotary-wing aircraft in the fifteenth century, no powering mechanism until the advent of the jet engine could provide the proper balance of horsepower and low weight necessary to keep such a machine airborne. With the engine`s incorporation into rotary-wing aircraft, it became possible for helicopters to take part in operations from combat to mid-sea rescue, rapidly making them some of the most versatile flying machines ever built.
Advanced Flight allows the construction of Gunships and Jet Fighters, two units essential for controlling the skies. TECH_SATELLITES15TECH_FLIGHT Aesthetics Cost: 300
+10 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Aesthetics is the branch of philosophy that deals with questions of art and beauty. Every culture in the world has its own Aesthetics, the study of art being nearly as old as art itself. Modern Aesthetics delves into all forms of art - theater, poetry, literature, film, etc. - but in its earliest form, aesthetics dealt largely with the visual arts.

While clashing senses of Aesthetics have caused many squabbles in their times, one city has been the center of some of the most violent artistic struggles throughout history - Istanbul. During the ninth century, Christian killed Christian in the city then known as Constantinople as the followers of Christ attempted to decide whether religious icons should be considered blasphemous. With the conquest of the city by the Ottomans, previous artistic works deemed offensive were removed or vandalized. Inside the Hagia Sophia, mosaics of Christian religious figures were covered with plaster, that only now, several hundred years later, are finally being revealed.
Aesthetics allows the construction of The Parthenon, The Statue of Zeus and the Shwedagon Paya Wonders. 5TECH_WRITING Agriculture Cost: 60
+8 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Agriculture is the science of cultivating soil, planting and harvesting crops. It can be argued that the mastery of agriculture was the single most important step towards creating a civilization, as agriculture allowed people to stop hunting and gathering and settle down in one place. Villages and cities would be unviable without some form of agriculture.

Evidence of plant cultivation dates back as far as 6000 BC. Apparently, grains were some of the earliest crops cultivated. Grains are incredibly useful foodstuffs they can be ground into flour and turned into bread, they can be fed to livestock and, perhaps most importantly, they can be stored for months without spoiling.

Over time a number of important tools were invented to aid in cultivation and preparation of grains. The sickle was an early innovation it allowed the grain to be harvested far quicker than by hand. Hand mills and mortar and pestles were created to grind the finished product, and pots to store it. As man learned about fertilization and irrigation, it became possible to get consistently larger yields, which lessoned the chances of famine and increased the numbers that could be fed from each field.
Agriculture allows your workers to build Farms (but only next to rivers and lakes until discovering Civil Service). Alphabet Cost: 300
+16 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 4000.
Enables tech trading.
                  The ancestors of modern alphabets were the iconographic and ideographic symbols developed by ancient man, such as cuneiform and hieroglyphics. The first known alphabet, a combination of a number of early pictographic symbols known as North Semitic, was developed between 1700 and 1500 BC. Four other alphabets - South Semitic, Canaanite, Aramaic, and Greek - had evolved from the North Semitic alphabet by 1000 BC. The Roman alphabet, used by all the languages of Western Europe including English, was derived from the Greek alphabet sometime after 500 BC. The Roman alphabet became one of the most widespread due to the extensive use of the Latin language during the reign of the Roman Empire. The development of alphabets was significant in the development of advanced civilizations because it allowed history and ideas to be written down, rather than memorized and passed along orally. Alphabet allows you to trade technologies with other civilizations and lets you build Spies in cities. 5TECH_WRITING Animal Husbandry Cost: 100
+8 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 2000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Animal husbandry possibly started as early as 9000 BC with the domestication of dogs, goats and sheep. During the Neolithic period as people started to settle into fixed agricultural communities this domestication intensified. Originally kept mainly for their meat, sheep and goats became valuable also for their milk and wool. Cattle were domesticated both for meat and skin and as work animals for agriculture their milk production was not a factor until much later in history when breeding for high milk production produced suitable cows. Horses were also domesticated and became important for transportation and came to play a major part in warfare. Animal Husbandry allows your workers to build the Pasture improvement. 5TECH_HUNTING6TECH_AGRICULTURE Archery Cost: 60
+8 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 6000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  An important technological innovation, bows were perhaps the first machines built to store energy slowly and then release it quickly. Bows and arrows have been in existence for 30,000 years. The original bows were made of springy wood - yew, bamboo, palm, and so forth. By 1300 BC, bows were made of composite material - wood, horn, and sinew. The first arrows were probably straight wooden sticks with one end sharpened and fire-hardened. Stone tips were added once man learned to sharpen flint.

The bow was a crucial element of ancient warfare, and remained so through the Middle Ages. The English longbow was a formidable weapon in the hands of a well-trained archer, who was able to punch through light armor at a distance. Compared to a longbow, the crossbow was slower and less accurate however, a crossbowman could be trained to use his weapon in far less time than it took to train a good archer.

The bow and arrow were eventually supplanted by the musket. The bow has all but vanished now, used mostly for sport by a few enthusiasts, but for thousands of years it ruled the battlefield.
This important early technology allows you to construct the Archer unit, and, later on, the more powerful Longbowman, Crossbowman, and Horse Archer units. 5TECH_HUNTING Artillery Cost: 4000
+40 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 10000.
                  The term "artillery" is used to describe any weapon that throws large missiles and requires more than one person to operate. In Civilization IV, the artillery technology refers specifically to the invention and production of large and powerful breech-loading weapons that fire shells rather than balls. Production of these weapons began in the latter half of the 19th Century.

Artillery is defined in a number of ways. One is by the weapon`s trajectory: a "direct fire" weapon has a relatively flat trajectory, while an "indirect-fire" weapon has a high arc, allowing the missile to be dropped on targets behind walls, hills or even mountains. Artillery is also defined by its mode of transport some are "fixed" weapons that cannot be moved, others are "towed" by separate vehicles, and others are "self-propelled."

Today`s artillery is extremely lethal. The weapons can fire missiles at targets miles away, their targets spotted from airplane or even satellite. Artillery shells may contain high explosives, shrapnel, fueled-air explosives, mines, or even poison gas. The primary limitation of artillery in modern warfare is its relative slowness the big guns cannot keep pace with the fast-moving armor and mechanized infantry forces. Jet planes are often used in artillery`s traditional role now.
Artillery allows you to build Artillery, Anti-Tank Infantry, and Mobile Artillery, the game`s most powerful siege unit. TECH_PHYSICS1TECH_STEEL25TECH_RIFLING Assembly Line Cost: 5000
+40 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 8000.
                  The idea of mass production began to take shape along with the factory system. The automation of production greatly increased productivity with a corresponding decrease in price for manufactured goods. In 1913, automobile manufacturer Henry Ford introduced the idea of assembly lines in his automobile plants. Products being built were conveyed from one work station to another along the line. At each station, a worker expertly repeated a discreet segment of the assembly process. The product then moved to the next station, and so on until the finished product rolled off the end of the line. This innovative combination of specialization of labor and the use of automation revolutionized production of complex goods. Word of Ford`s assembly line technique spread quickly, and this production method soon came to be used in most of the industrialized nations of the world. Assembly Line allows you to build Infantry (with Rifling). It also enables construction of the Factory building and the Pentagon wonder. TECH_CORPORATION15TECH_STEAM_POWER Astronomy Cost: 2000
+32 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 4000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Astronomy originated as simple observation and recording of regular celestial movements for the purpose of time keeping and determining directional bearings. The ancient Greeks were among the first to study astronomy in detail. They described the use of stars for navigation at sea, and recorded the position of constellations during each season of the year for purposes of determining times for planting and harvesting.

The Greek astronomer Aristarchus developed the theory that celestial motion could be explained by the fact that the Earth revolved on its axis once every 24 hours, and revolves around the sun along with the other planets. This theory was rejected at the time, only to be rediscovered nearly 2000 years later by Copernicus. These early students of astronomy compiled data that became the cornerstone for modern astronomical research.
Astronomy allows access to the Galleon, as well as the Frigate and the Privateer (with Chemistry) and the Ship of the Line (with Military Science). It enables trading on the ocean and lets you build Observatories. It obsoletes The Colossus and Stonehenge Wonders and the Monument building. TECH_CALENDAR1TECH_OPTICS2 Banking Cost: 700
+24 points.
                  Many of the services performed by banks today can be traced back to medieval Europe. Certain families, such as the Medicis of Italy, were known for the banking duties they performed. These wealthy merchants pooled their surplus money into a bank, then loaned cash (with interest) to other commercial enterprises. The availability of this capital for investment made many new businesses possible, accelerating economic growth.

The first modern banks were established in Europe during the late 1600s. The primary function of today`s banking system is the granting of loans to consumers and businesses. In addition to loaning money and safeguarding deposits, banks also invest in government and private securities and bonds. Both the loan and investment functions of banks not only make profits for the bank itself, but also stimulate the economy by providing funds for business growth and consumer purchases.
This tech allows you to build Banks, which greatly increase a city`s production of wealth. Banking also enables the Mercantilism civic. TECH_CURRENCY15TECH_GUILDS Biology Cost: 3600
+40 points.
Can build farms without irrigation.
                  Biology is the study of living organisms, and it has been around since man began to think. The biology technology specifically refers to the study of bacteria, viruses and cells that became possible once the first powerful microscopes were invented.

The benefits to humanity from this research are incalculable. The basic knowledge of how germs spread and the importance of cleanliness has saved untold millions of lives, inside of hospitals and out. Antibiotics, such as penicillin, have saved countless more, as have vaccinations. This study of biology has also led to increased food production, as ways are learned to create better and more disease-resistant plants and livestock.

Great strides continue to be made in biology. The study of genetics alone has the potential to do great things for mankind ... or to destroy it, if the new technology is not used with the respect and caution it deserves.
Biology allows your workers to build Farms without Irrigation as well as the National Park national wonder. It increases the food production of all Farms by 1. TECH_CHEMISTRY15TECH_SCIENTIFIC_METHOD Bronze Working Cost: 120
+8 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 8000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Evidence of the use of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, dates back to Thailand in 4500 BC. Several hundred years later, bronze working was discovered in the Middle East. Artifacts from this period show that bronze was initially used for decorative purposes only. This is because tin was not readily available. It wasn`t until approximately 2000 BC, when tin was regularly imported from neighboring regions, that bronze replaced copper in the construction of larger items. Bronze was harder and less brittle than copper, and it held a sharper edge. Tools, weapons, and armor made from bronze were also cheaper to produce and more durable. The period of time when bronze was the metal of choice for such items was known as the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age lasted until iron working became prevalent in approximately 1200 BC. Bronze Working reveals the Copper resource and allows you to build Axemen. It enables the Slavery civic and lets your workers chop down forests. 5TECH_MINING Calendar Cost: 350
+16 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
Centers world map.
                  Calendars played an important role in the development of human culture. Their earliest uses may have been mystical - to chart the courses of the stars and to determine the most auspicious days upon which to perform religious sacrifices - but they were also critical for determining when the best time was to plant and harvest crops.

All that is needed to create a calendar is careful observation and record-keeping. After watching the skies for a long time, one might notice that the days gradually get shorter and then longer, and that this process takes 365 days to repeat. This would give the length of a year - the great cycle of life on the planet. Further observations on the movement of the moon and stars would provide further details.

Perhaps the most difficult aspect of creating an accurate calendar is that a year takes 365 and a quarter days rather than exactly 365. If one does not take this into account (say, by the inclusion of an extra day every four years as currently), over the years one`s calendar will get more and more out of date with the natural world.

The earliest known Egyptian calendar was created in 4000 BC. The earliest known Sumerian calendar was invented around 1000 years later, and the first Chinese one was invented around 1400 BC. The Olmecs invented the first American calendar some time between 1200 BC and 300 AD.
Calendar allows your workers to construct Plantation improvements, enabling you to access various valuable resources. It allows construction of the Mausoleum of Maussollos wonder. TECH_SAILING15TECH_MATHEMATICS Chemistry Cost: 1800
+32 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 6000.
                  The earliest practical use of chemical processes was by metal smiths of the ancient world. These artisans learned how to use heat to melt various naturally occurring metals together to form alloys such as bronze. Early manufacturers of cloth also used primitive chemical processes to set dyes. In the following centuries, chemical processes were studied through the pseudo-science of alchemy, which attempted to change base metals into gold. Although alchemists were, of course, unsuccessful, they did develop many valuable chemical processes as a result.

The manuscripts produced by alchemists were studied by succeeding generations, and an effective knowledge of chemistry had been accumulated by the late 13th century. In the 17th century, the ideas of alchemy finally died out as an increasing body of true chemical knowledge was gained through experimental analysis, leading to the modern science of chemistry.
Chemistry allows construction of Privateers and Frigates (with Astronomy). It also increases production from all workshops by 1. TECH_ENGINEERING15TECH_GUNPOWDER Civil Service Cost: 800
+24 points.
Farms spread irrigation.
                  Civil Service is the technology of bureaucracy - organizing and running a government. A successful civil service requires standard procedures, division of responsibility, hierarchy, and advancement through merit. Clearly record-keeping is crucial to the successful management of a government, as well. While some early cultures kept records on clay or wax or stone tablets, the advent of paper was a boon to the advance of bureaucracy and a civil service.

One of the oldest known civil services is found in China, during the Tang dynasty (600-900 AD). This was created largely in response to the Confucian demands for honest government among other innovations, the Tang civil servants were hired based upon the results of a written examination, rather than through the more common methods of bribery and patronage, and thus had fewer ties to the wealthy and powerful nobility.

The English followed the Chinese civil service model when they created a bureaucracy to manage their growing colonies. Though successful, the practice did not spread to Europe until the mid-18th century.
Civil Service enables the Bureaucracy civic and allows you to build Macemen (with Machinery). Further, it lets your workers spread Irrigation. TECH_MATHEMATICS15TECH_CODE_OF_LAWS6TECH_FEUDALISM Code of Laws Cost: 350
+16 points.
                  The earliest tribal civilizations were bonded together by mutual needs and beliefs. A tribal chieftain, who acted as an advisor and enforcer of the will of the gods, ruled these groups. No formal laws existed in these early cultures, but fear of the gods and a sense of tribal customs and morality kept order in the tribe. As societies became larger and more diverse, the need arose for established rules of conduct. The earliest known codes of laws existed in Babylon, India, and Palestine. The Twelve Tables of Rome, written in 500 BC, and its successors such as the Justinian Code, were the first codes of law to distinguish between public law, which involves the state, and private law, which concerns disputes between citizens. Roman law was the first formalized written system of laws, and went on to influence many of the legal systems of the modern world. The first to research this tech founds Confucianism. It enables the Caste System civic and allows construction of Courthouses and the Chichen Itza wonder. TECH_WRITING15TECH_PRIESTHOOD6TECH_CURRENCY Combustion Cost: 3600
+40 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 6000.
                  The development of internal combustion was a great advance of the Industrial Age. German engineer Nikolaus Otto built the forerunner of today`s internal combustion engine in 1876. Refinements on Otto`s design over the next ten years led to more efficient and powerful engines. The internal combustion engine forever changed world transportation. Early automobiles utilizing steam engines had proven to be both underpowered and impractical, but the fuel efficiency and compact size of the internal combustion engine allowed the automotive industry to flourish. Several variations, including the diesel engine designed by Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel, went on to revolutionize propulsion in shipping and other transportation industries. Combustion allows you to construct the Transport, Destroyer, and Attack Submarine (with Radio and Rocketry) naval units. You may construct the Public Transportation building and the Creative Constructions Wonder. It enables your workers to build the Well improvement on land-based Oil resources and obsoletes the Whale resource. 5TECH_RAILROAD Compass Cost: 400
+16 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 4000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese knew the phenomenon of magnetism. They observed that lodestone, an iron-bearing ore, attracted other iron. They also noted that pieces of iron that came into contact with lodestone gained magnetic properties as well. The electromagnetic force of attraction and repulsion between various substances is due to the motion of positively and negatively charged electrons. Every magnet has positive and negative sides, called poles. Poles with a like charge repel one another, and poles with opposite charges attract one another.

The study of magnetic phenomena soon showed that a free-floating magnet aligns itself with the Earth`s magnetic field, one pole pointing north, the other south. This was an important discovery, and led to the invention of the compass in the early 13th century. The use of the compass revolutionized sea travel by reducing the reliance on landmarks and stars for navigation.
Compass allows your cities to create Explorers and build Harbors and leads to other naval technologies. TECH_SAILING15TECH_IRON_WORKING Composites Cost: 7500
+48 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 5000.
                  The term "composite" refers to any object that is made up of more than one material. Composites were used quite early in human history composite bows have been discovered dating back to 1300 BC. The composite technology refers the late 20th Century invention of various metal and plastic composites with greater strength, lightness, and other special properties than the base materials.

Kevlar, the modern battle armor, is a composite material. Modern tanks are constructed of steel-boron nitride composites. Stealth airplanes use composite materials that are much more difficult to spot on radar. The tungsten-carbide composite is used in drill bits and wedding rings.

Composite materials often demand extremely complex and precise manufacturing processes. However expensive the process may be, the resulting material may have superior qualities that make them more than worth the expense.
Composites enables construction of Modern Armor (with Computers). It lets you build the SS Casing project. TECH_SATELLITES15TECH_PLASTICS Computers Cost: 6500
+48 points.
                  A computer is a device capable of performing a series of repetitive arithmetic or logical functions far more quickly than the human brain. The earliest computers were designed to solve complex mathematical equations. British mathematician Charles Babbage conceived such a machine, called the Analytical Engine, in the 19th century. Many variations of analog, or mechanical, computing devices were built during the first half of the 20th century, and were used for such tasks as computing torpedo tracking in submarines and controlling bombsights.

The growing study of electronics in the late 1940s led to the invention of the digital computer. The first all-electronic computer, containing 18,000 vacuum tubes and capable of hundreds of multiplications per minute, was built in 1946. Further advances in electronics rapidly reduced the size and increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Today, computers are commonplace, and are used in virtually every field of endeavor. Significant advances in computer technology continue to take place at an amazing pace.
Computers enables the construction of the COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTInternet project and the powerful Modern Armor. It also obsoletes Angkor Wat, The University of Sankore and The Spiral Minaret. TECH_PLASTICS15TECH_RADIO Constitution Cost: 2000
+32 points.
                  A "constitution" is a system that establishes the fundamental rules by which a nation is governed. Generally, a constitution describes the relationship between the government and the people, and the relationships between the various parts (or branches) of the government. A constitution will lay down how the rulers of the country are chosen and describe the limits of their power. Many nations, such as the United States, have written, codified constitutions, while some, such as the United Kingdom, have unwritten constitutions.

Aristotle invented the concept of constitutions in the 3rd Century BC. In 622 AD, the Prophet Muhammad created the first written constitution, the "Constitution of Medina." King Henry I of England proclaimed the "Charter of Liberties" in 1100 AD, and in 1215 the English nobility forced King John to sign the "Magna Carta."

The most important part of the Magna Carta, Article 39, established the concept of "habeas corpus" (literally, "you should have the body") which constrained the king from exiling, imprisoning, or killing anyone without "due process" of law. The "due process" clause of the Fifth Amendment in the US Constitution is directly descended from Article 39.
This tech enables the Representation civic and allows the construction of Jails. TECH_CODE_OF_LAWS15TECH_NATIONALISM Construction Cost: 350
+16 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 4000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
Enables bridge building.
                  The development of masonry led to a widespread use of stone in simple structures such as fortifications, but due to the weight and cumbersome nature of stone blocks, more complex structures had to be made of simpler materials. The need for the widespread use of more durable and permanent materials eventually became apparent, forcing ancient artisans to learn new techniques. The biggest problem to overcome was finding a stable way to span the distance between two upright columns or walls using stone blocks. To solve this problem, fundamental architectural elements such as the arch and vault evolved. These basic construction techniques allowed larger and more elaborate buildings to be created from stone and mortar. Many of the buildings erected by these early builders are still standing, a testament to the sound construction techniques employed in their construction. This tech allows you to build the Catapult unit and the War Elephant (with Ivory). It also enables Colosseums and your units no longer lose movement when crossing rivers on roads. TECH_MASONRY15TECH_MATHEMATICS Corporation Cost: 1600
+1 trade routes per city.
+32 points.
                  As businesses grow, they often find it necessary to raise large amounts of operating capital in order to expand their operations beyond a certain point, or to meet operating expenses. In these cases, one option available is to form a corporation and "go public", or sell shares of the business to investors. This arrangement allows the business to expand rapidly, while spreading the risks of the expansion among many people, reducing individual risk. Corporations also have legal advantages such as the right to sue, and the limitation of liability for the corporation`s debt to the amount originally invested by the owners. Corporations as legal entities have existed since ancient Rome, although the joint-stock company as it is known today didn`t begin operating until sometime in the 16th century. Corporation adds an additional trade route to all cities and enables construction of the Wall Street national wonder. It is a requirement to build all Corporation Wonders. TECH_CONSTITUTION15TECH_ECONOMICS Currency Cost: 400
+1 trade routes per city.
+16 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
Enables gold trading via diplomacy.
                  As cities grew, their internal economies became more complicated. People became specialists, some primarily producing grain, some pottery, some bricks, etc. A system of barter developed, so that one individual`s wares and services could be exchanged for those of another. Gold and silver were widely used in such transactions, but the pieces needed to be weighed and tested for purity each time they changed hands.

In 600 BC, the Lydians found a way around this problem. They began the practice of shaping electrum, an alloy of gold and silver, into pieces of predetermined weight and purity, stamped with an official symbol. This idea caught on, and within 50 years all the important trading centers of the world had adopted similar practices. The widespread use of currency created universal standards of value, allowing people from various societies to conduct business almost anywhere without being forced to bring along bulky goods for trade and barter.
Currency adds +1 trade routes per city and allows you to construct the Market and Grocer (with Guilds) city improvements. It also enables you to build Wealth in cities and to trade gold with other civs. 5TECH_MATHEMATICS6TECH_ALPHABET Democracy Cost: 2800
+32 points.
                  Democracy is a ruling system where the citizens have a great deal of control over the actions of the government, either directly or through elected representatives. Democratic governments can be traced back to the city-states of ancient Greece and Rome. Citizens would gather in a public forum, and each one would have the opportunity to speak and vote on issues affecting the community. This direct democracy system was possible due to the relatively small populations of the city-states. Starting in the 17th century, the monarchs of Europe began to be stripped of their absolute power, and by the end of the 19th century the citizens had a strong voice in government in many European nations. Large populations made public forums impractical, so the people elected groups of representatives to carry their views to the ruling powers. Strictly speaking, this type of system more closely resembles a republican system rather than a true democracy. This type of representative democracy is considered the best governing system in the modern world because of the personal and economic freedom enjoyed by the citizens. This tech enables the Universal Suffrage and Emancipation civics. It allows construction of the Security Bureau building and the Statue of Liberty wonder. TECH_PRINTING_PRESS15TECH_CONSTITUTION Divine Right Cost: 1200
+24 points.
                  The divine right theory of royal legitimacy holds that monarchs rule by direct sanction from God accordingly, they are not accountable to any authority other than God. Legislatures, courts, judges, and the governed have no right to restrain the king`s exercise of his authority, according to this theory. When kings who proclaimed their divine right to rule disagreed with the Church on political or religious matters, the results were often interesting (and violent). Ironically, the theory of divine right was partly responsible for the rise of the idea of separation between church and state, since divine-right rulers claimed that their godly sanction entitled them to impose rules on the ecclesiastical authorities in their kingdoms (regardless of what the Church thought), and to ignore those authorities` instructions on how they ought to govern. The divine right doctrine began during the late Middle Ages, when rulers sought to rein in feudal lords whose support came with a few too many strings attached. It had begun to lose its luster around the 17th century, although Napoleon Bonaparte drove what was perhaps the final nail into its coffin when, at his imperial coronation ceremony, he seized the crown from the Pope`s hands and placed it on his own head -- thereby denying God`s prerogative to name rulers, and seizing that power for himself. The first to research this tech founds Islam. Divine Right also allows construction of the Versailles and Spiral Minaret wonders. TECH_THEOLOGY1TECH_MONARCHY2 Drama Cost: 300
+16 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Alfred Hitchcock once said, "Drama is life with the dull bits cut out." If he`d been alive during ancient times, he might have uttered these same words when facing a play from Euripides. Reflecting the interesting (and often) tragic parts of "life" on the stage was an important part of the ancient world, and helped to shape our modern culture. Drama allows you to adjust the Culture slider and enables construction of Theatres as well as the Globe Theatre national wonder. 5TECH_AESTHETICS Ecology Cost: 5500
+48 points.
                  For centuries, human society has taken the gifts of nature for granted. As civilizations grew, humans spread out across the face of the planet, taking what they needed from the land and producing more and more waste materials with little regard for the future. In the late 1960s, a growing number of people became concerned about the growing problems of pollution and the destruction of natural habitats. This movement led to the formation of groups like the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The EPA`s aim is to reduce all types of pollution. To this end, the agency has imposed strict laws and guidelines concerning the disposal of hazardous materials, set clean water standards, and studied more effective techniques of solid waste disposal. The primary goal of the environmental movement as a whole is to make sure that the environment is safe and intact for future generations to enjoy.
Ecology allows workers to Scrub Fallout. It also enables cities to build the Recycling Center and the COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTSS Life Support spaceship part. TECH_BIOLOGY15TECH_PLASTICS6TECH_FISSION Economics Cost: 1400
+32 points.
                  The ideas of supply and demand, and philosophies concerning trade and the production and consumption of goods and services, are concepts that have existed since the dawn of mankind. As societies became more complex, however, people began to study these abstract concepts in a more formal way. The first recorded study of economics as a science, rather than a philosophical or political concept, was the book "The Wealth of Nations" by Scottish economist Adam Smith. This book represents the first attempt to fully analyze sources of income and the distribution of wealth. Smith`s analysis of economics served as a guide by which many of the governmental economic policies of the present day were formed. The first to discover Economics receives a Great Merchant. It also enables the Free Market civic and the Customs House. TECH_BANKING15TECH_EDUCATION Education Cost: 1800
+32 points.
                  Education is the process of passing on the knowledge of previous generations to future ones. The impact of this simple process is not to be underestimated, and in a fundamental way permitted mankind to dominate the planet. Originally a privilege solely of males, it soon became a fundamental right in the United States. Schools of all types began to specialize in certain fields and/or student demographics, allowing people of all kinds the benefit of this wealth of information. Modern curriculums surprisingly cover many of the same subjects taught throughout history, such as literature, language, and mathematics. Education enables the construction of the University city improvement and the Oxford University national wonder. 5TECH_PAPER Electricity Cost: 4500
+40 points.
                  Humans have witnessed the phenomenon of electricity in the forms of lightning, static electricity, and magnetism since the dawn of time. Electricity was not seriously studied, however, until the 17th century. Early electrical pioneers studied various electrical phenomena, and built devices both to generate and to measure electrical charges. In 1892 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, a Dutch physicist, advanced the electron theory. This theory, which explains electricity as a reaction between positively and negatively charged electrons, formed the basis for modern electrical theory. Based on Lorentz`s work, early engineers such as Thomas Edison pioneered methods allowing the widespread use of electricity as a power source. Electricity improves the output of Windmills and Watermills. It allows construction of Bunkers, Bomb Shelters, and the Broadway wonder. 5TECH_PHYSICS Engineering Cost: 1000
+24 points.
                  Engineering is the application of scientific and mathematical principles to the design and/or manufacture of theoretical systems and physical objects. Prior to the mid-18th century, military engineers carried out all engineering functions. Their work involved the construction of roads, bridges, fortifications, and the performance of other duties relating to the military. In the late 18th century, civil engineers took over all non-military engineering functions. Other fields of engineering prior to the 20th century included mining engineers, who designed mines and methods of mining, and mechanical engineers, who dealt with the design and construction of machinery. As new technologies developed, new fields of engineering developed along with them. Today, there are engineers specifically trained in nearly every field, from electronics and computers to chemistry and atomics. Engineering allows production of the Pikeman, excellent against mounted units and the city-smashing Trebuchet siege unit. It increases road movement and allows construction of Castles and the Notre Dame wonder. TECH_MACHINERY15TECH_CONSTRUCTION Fascism Cost: 2400
+40 points.
Enables permanent alliance.
                  Unlike other forms of government, there is no concrete definition of fascism. The word "fascism" comes from the fasces, the bundle of sticks used as a symbol of authority in ancient Rome - appropriately, since the first fascist government, that of Benito Mussolini in Italy, aspired to regain Rome`s glory.

Some common elements of fascism include strong nationalist sentiment, xenophobia, subordination of individual interests to the community, militarism and glorification of the army, secret police forces that enforce secret laws, informer networks, suppression of civil liberties and independent media, and economic policies that tightly tie business and commerce to government. (Note that many of these features are common in communist states as well.)

Fascist states need not be authoritarian, although they usually are when fascist leaders are democratically elected (as Adolf Hitler was), they often try to modify or abolish the democratic institutions that placed the leaders in power.
Fascism enables the Police State civic, the Paratrooper unit (with Rifling and Flight) and construction of the Mount Rushmore wonder. It also allows Permanent Alliances. TECH_NATIONALISM15TECH_ASSEMBLY_LINE Feudalism Cost: 700
+24 points.
Enables vassal states.
                  In the unsettled times following the collapse of Charlemagne`s Frankish empire, a new social and political system arose in Europe called feudalism. Derived from the concept of monarchy, feudalism was a hierarchical system in which each descending stratum owed allegiance to those above. The king, whose authority was second only to God, granted tracts of land, or fiefs, to his barons. The barons might then grant smaller estates to knights, who swore to protect and serve the baron. The knights, in turn, might then grant fractions of their fiefs to subordinates who would serve the knights. At the bottom of the feudal pyramid were the serfs, who could not own land, and acted essentially as slave laborers who worked the land for their masters. Feudalism began to decline in the 13th century, when standing armies and mercenaries began to fulfill the protective role once served by the vassals and knights. Feudalism allows production of Longbowmen (with Archery). It also enables the Vassalage and Serfdom civics. TECH_WRITING15TECH_MONARCHY Fiber Optics Cost: 7500
+48 points.
                  Fiber optics is the technology of creating fibers that transmit light. Fiber optic cables are used to transmit information - computer data, telephone signals, cable television, and so forth. They have many advantages over traditional wire cables: fiber optic cables are lighter than wire cables, they can carry huge amounts of data and transmit that data faster than wire, and they don`t lose signal over distance. In short, fiber optics make a nation`s information network far more efficient.

Fiber optics have other interesting uses, as well. They can be used to make extremely small cameras, such as endoscopes which allow physicians to see precisely what`s going on inside a patient`s body without requiring surgery. Law enforcement agencies find such cameras extremely useful as well, particularly in hostage situations. And they can be used to make decorative jewelry, sculptures, and Christmas trees.

Fiber optics were first conceived in the 1960s. The first useful cable was created in 1970, and the first trans-Atlantic fiber optic cable was laid in 1988. They are now in common use the world over, and many modern cities have begun to replace their existing wire cables with the new optical cables.
Fiber Optics allows you to build the COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTSS Cockpit spaceship part. 5TECH_COMPUTERS6TECH_LASER Fishing Cost: 40
+8 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
Can work water tiles.
                  Man has long relied on the sea to provide sustenance. The most primitive peoples gathered mollusks and crabs from the sand eventually they learned to make spears to capture the rich foodstuffs out of reach of hand. The fishing technology allows sophisticated advancements in fishing: building small coastal fishing vessels, weaving and deploying large fishing nets, constructing crab traps, and so forth.

Fishing is a major industry in the world today, and hundreds of thousands of pounds of fish are taken from the sea every day. However, this has put a serious strain on the ocean`s ecology, and continued unfettered fishing may soon overwhelm and destroy this precious resource.
Fishing allows construction of Work Boats, which can harvest Fish, Crabs, and other aquatic resources. Fishing is also required for cities to use any water tiles. Fission Cost: 5500
+40 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 8000.
                  According to Einstein`s theory of relativity, even the smallest bit of matter is equivalent to a tremendous amount of energy. For instance, two pounds of matter, if converted completely into energy, would produce energy equivalent to the explosive force of 22 megatons of high explosives. In 1939, based on German experiments that successfully split the uranium atom, physicists were able to explain the process of nuclear fission. When a large, unstable atomic nucleus splits (fissions) it results in two or more smaller, more stable nuclei accompanied by the release of tremendous amounts of energy and lingering, deadly radioactivity.

The first application of this powerful technology was in warfare. A top-secret research effort in the U.S. known as the Manhattan Project studied the fission process, and eventually produced the first atomic bombs, which were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. These relatively small bombs, the only atomic weapons ever used in a war, each produced an explosion equivalent to more than 20,000 tons of TNT. The nuclear weapons of today are capable of producing explosions thousands of times more powerful.
Fission enables construction of Nuclear Plants and the COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTManhattan Project wonder. It allows access to the ICBM and Tactical Nuke units. 5TECH_ELECTRICITY Flight Cost: 5000
+48 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 8000.
                  The idea of flight has tantalized humans since the dawn of time. Early investigations of flying machines date back to the 13th century. In the 16th century, Leonardo da Vinci proposed a number of inventions that eventually came to pass, including the propeller and the parachute. Throughout the 19th century, various engineers experimented successfully with gliders, and experiments with compressed air and steam engines attempted to produce self-powered flight with limited success.

The key to success in powered flight was the invention of the internal combustion engine. Just after the turn of the 20th century, Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first four controlled, sustained human flights at Kitty Hawk, NC. The technology of flight advanced rapidly from this landmark event, and within a relatively few years, aircraft were circling the globe, safely delivering passengers and mail at record speeds.
Flight allows you to build Carriers, Fighters, and other air units (with additional techs). It also enables construction of Airports. TECH_PHYSICS1TECH_COMBUSTION2 Fusion Cost: 8000
+48 points.
                  Nuclear Fusion is the process by which two atomic nuclei combine to form one heavier atomic nucleus, giving off tremendous energy as a by-product. This type of nuclear reaction, which is the process by which stars such as the sun produce heat and light, requires very high temperatures and an enormous amount of pressure to initiate, and a reliable system of fuel containment to sustain. Fusion reactions have been produced in artificial environments on Earth by bombarding deuterium with high-energy particles accelerated in a cyclotron. Unfortunately, the amount of energy released in the reaction was considerably less than the energy required to accelerate the particles. Brief fusion reactions have been demonstrated in the detonation of thermonuclear weapons, but these reactions are useless for power generation because they cannot be controlled. If a way can be found to produce a controlled fusion reaction, this technology offers great promise as a source of electric power. The combination of abundant fuel sources and no harmful byproducts makes fusion power a safe alternative to the dangerous side effects produced by nuclear fission. Fusion allows you to build the COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTSS Engine spaceship part. The first to discover this tech receives a Great Engineer. TECH_FISSION15TECH_FIBER_OPTICS Future Tech Cost: 10000
+1 in all cities.
+1 in all cities.
+64 points.
                  Since the dawn of mankind, human needs and desires have combined to produce ideas and inventions that make life easier and more productive. New technological breakthroughs have become an almost daily occurrence in the modern era, and new ideas will continue to drive human knowledge to higher and higher levels well into the future. Future Tech increases health and happiness in your cities. TECH_STEALTH15TECH_GENETICS Genetics Cost: 7000
+3 in all cities.
+48 points.
                  The field of genetics involves the manipulation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA contains the genetic "code" which determines the inherited traits of living organisms. Removing a section of an organism`s DNA and replacing it with that of another organism can alter the characteristics of the organism. Since its inception, genetic engineering has produced a number of important benefits, such as isolating the gene for interferon, a rare substance that may be of great value in the treatment of viral diseases and cancer. Genetic manipulation may someday also provide a cure for birth defects and inherited diseases. Unfortunately, there are also potential dangers involved in this technology. Genetically engineered diseases, more communicable and virulent than any occurring in nature, could potentially be created in the laboratory by accident or maliciously. Such viruses could be used as a dreadful biological weapon. Domestic and international regulations regarding genetic experimentation exist to prevent such a situation from occurring. Genetics greatly increases the health of your cities. It allows you to build the COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTSS Stasis Chamber spaceship part. TECH_MEDICINE15TECH_SUPERCONDUCTORS Guilds Cost: 1000
+24 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 8000.
                  A guild is an association of people who practice the same trade. The guilds seek to protect their members` incomes, maintain standards of performance, and train new workers in the trade. Guilds have often built hospitals, orphanages and schools to serve their members. Guilds seek to expand their membership to include all who practice their profession. Such monopolies allow guilds greater control over the fees their members can charge for their services.

Many of the earliest guilds - Roman professional organizations, for instance - had strong religious components. One of the earliest known Muslim guilds were formed by the "warraqeen," or "those who work with knowledge." In the ninth century these professional writers and printers worked together to ensure the quality of published material and to stop other printers from making illegal copies of the material.

The European guilds came into being around 1000 AD. They included a rigid hierarchy of skilled workers - apprentice, craftsman, journeyman, master and sometimes grandmaster. The higher in the hierarchy a member was, the more he payment he could demand. This structure greatly increased the guilds` memberships, since one could not attain the higher statuses without belonging to a guild.
This tech allows you to build powerful Knight units (with Horseback Riding), as well as the Grocer city improvement. It increases production from all workshops by 1. TECH_FEUDALISM15TECH_MACHINERY Gunpowder Cost: 1200
+32 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 12000.
                  Gunpowder is a chemical mixture of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal. When ignited, it burns rapidly and explodes if contained to any degree. Gunpowder is believed to have been developed by the Chinese, who used it in fireworks as early as the 9th century, but it did not reach Europe until the 14th century. Europeans immediately saw the potential of this substance, and manufactured it for use in weapons as early as 1334. The discovery of gunpowder led to the invention of firearms, such as the musket, which led to the replacement of archers in most armies of the world by the late 1500s. Gunpowder marked one of the major technological turning points in military history significantly changing the way wars were fought. Gunpowder allows you to build Musketman units and Cuirassiers (with Military Tradition). 5TECH_GUILDS6TECH_EDUCATION Horseback Riding Cost: 250
+8 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 10000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Tribesmen on the Asian steppes first domesticated the horse for transportation and warfare. These tribesmen used their superior mobility and speed to overwhelm the proto-civilizations just rising in southeast Europe and the Middle East. In approximately 2000 BC, domestic horses were introduced into Babylonia. Within the next several centuries, horses had spread throughout much of Europe and northern Africa. It was not long before nearly every civilization had put horses to work as field animals and as a means of transportation. Horses also went on to play an important role in the military conflicts of nearly every civilization in the world, both as mounts for horsemen and cavalry, and as draft animals for pulling war chariots and heavy weapons into battle. Horseback Riding enables the powerful Horse Archer (with Archery) unit, and later on Knights (with Guilds), Cuirassiers (with Military Tradition) and Cavalry (with Military Tradition and Rifling). 5TECH_ANIMAL_HUSBANDRY Hunting Cost: 40
+8 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 2000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  In its most general sense, Hunting is the pursuit of a target. For ancient societies, before the widespread domestication of animals and the creation of "livestock", hunting was vital to survival in the hunter-gatherer way of life. Hunting provided an important source of protien to augument the foraged plants and vegetables that made up the majority of a hunter-gatherer`s diet. Hunting also provided significant exercise and challenges to these advancing people that improved communication and teamwork skills. Not only did hunting provide diet potential, but it also served as a way for early man to protect itself against cold weather through the use of furs and animal hides from the fallen beasts. The amount of energy that early humans put into hunting forced them to constantly discover new and creative ways to use every part of the animal. Hunting allows you to create Scouts and Spearman units. It also enables your workers to build the Camp improvement. Industrialism Cost: 6500
+40 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 10000.
                  Industrialization involves the use of machines to dramatically increase productivity. Production of goods became concentrated in factories, where the combination of specialization of labor and automation reduced labor costs and, ultimately, the cost of the final manufactured product to the consumers. Industrialization revolutionized living standards, both positively and negatively. The rapid growth of production industries and the reduced cost of production have led to the prosperity of some of the richest families in history. Industrialization has also led to the creation of a blue-collar working class. In newly industrialized nations, these workers, skilled only in their chosen trade, are often underpaid and forced to endure abominable working conditions. Industrialism allows construction of the Battleship, Marine (with Rifling), and Tank (with Rifling) units and the Industrial Park building. It also reveals the Aluminum resource and obsoletes Ivory. TECH_ELECTRICITY15TECH_ASSEMBLY_LINE Iron Working Cost: 200
+16 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 10000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Some examples of iron ornamentation date back to 4000 BC, but the use of iron for tools, weapons, and other practical purposes did not become common until much later. Prior to this time, bronze was the most widely used metal for such purposes. Although the term "Iron Age" denotes a period of time starting around 1000 BC, iron replaced bronze as the metal of choice at different times in different places.

Iron is more common than copper and tin, the component metals of bronze, but iron is seldom found in a free state it is most commonly found mixed with other minerals and elements. In order to be used, the iron must be separated from the ore. Once this technique was developed, and forges hot enough to melt the iron were developed, iron working became commonplace. Worked iron was harder, less brittle, and could hold a much sharper edge than bronze. Iron has remained an important metal throughout history, and is one of the major components in the production of steel.
Iron Working reveals the Iron resource and allows construction of the Swordsman unit. It also allows your workers to cut down jungles. 5TECH_BRONZE_WORKING Laser Cost: 7000
+48 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 10000.
                  The laser, short for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation," is a focused beam of photons, light energy released by excited atoms. Lasers rely on a phenomenon that occurs when a collection of atoms of certain elements are excited to the same state: they all release the same color of photon. When properly focused through reflective mediums, the result is a high-density beam of photons with innumerable uses, from military targeting to earthquake prevention. Laser allows the construction of the Mobile SAM, the ultimate land-based anti-air unit, the Mobile Artillery, the most powerful siege weapon in the game, and the COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTSDI. TECH_PLASTICS15TECH_SATELLITES Liberalism Cost: 1400
First to discover receives a free technology.
+32 points.
                  Liberalism is a political philosophy that states that a government`s primary purpose is to protect its citizens` personal liberty and property. Personal liberty usually includes freedom of religion and expression. Modern liberalism is a child of the "Age of Enlightenment" in the 18th century, which sought to free the world of irrationality, superstition and tyranny.

"Liberalism" has meant many different things in different times and places. In its early European incarnation, liberalism saw itself in opposition to the rule of absolute monarchs and (often) the Church. Later, liberalism`s great enemies were communism and fascism. In the modern United States, liberals are opposed to the policies of "conservatives," whom the liberals believe seek to restrict personal freedom and favor the wealthy over the poor. Of course, conservatives have an entirely different view on the matter...
The first to discover Liberalism receives a free technology. It also enables the Free Speech and Free Religion civics. TECH_PHILOSOPHY15TECH_EDUCATION Literature Cost: 200
+16 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  The art of writing as literature, bodies of works written thematically, is at least as old in the western world as Greek culture. Surviving records of Babylonian culture refer to at least two epic tales, which infers that literature as a comprehensive body is much older, but neither survive to this day. The development of a living body of literature became indicative of an advanced culture and are always correlated with advances in science, philosophy, theology, and art.

Literature in the western world has survived in the forms that the Greeks and Romans established, but the expense and effort of hand copying texts ensured that only the wealthy had access to literate education. Libraries, which served as storehouses of these bodies of text, also became centers for education and the proliferation of ideas.

Unfortunately the loss of many such libraries, such as the Great Library of Alexandria in a civil war in the 3rd century AD, also heralded the loss of many of these irreplaceable texts. It wasn`t until the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg that books were printed rather than transcribed. That single advance in literature opened the field up to those other than monks and the wealthy, birthing a proliferation of literature that spread across the world.
Allows you to build the National Epic and Heroic Epic national wonders, as well as the Great Library world wonder. TECH_POLYTHEISM15TECH_AESTHETICS Machinery Cost: 700
+24 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 8000.
                  A machine is an object constructed of several parts that assists in the performance of a task. The machinery technology allows construction of fairly complex machines with metal components that store, modify and transmit energy in a useful fashion. A windmill is a machine of this type, as is a printing press.

Man has used primitive machines throughout much of history. A bow can be considered a simple machine, as can a mortar and pestle. More complex machines came into being in the Middle Ages - at least in Europe. The Persians had windmills back in the seventh century BC.

The earliest machines consisted of gears, driveshafts, levers, pulleys, screws, winches and so forth. Some of these elements could be satisfactorily created of wood or stone, but those substances tend to be both fragile and very difficult to work with, particularly in small sizes. Once metallurgy provided stronger and more precise metal components, machines rapidly grew in sophistication and utility.
Machinery allows the Maceman (with Civil Service) and Crossbowman (with Archery). It also lets workers build Windmills and Watermills. 5TECH_METAL_CASTING Masonry Cost: 80
+8 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  The early dwellings of most tribal cultures were built of materials that were readily available and easy to work with, such as bricks of clay and mud. As tribes gave up their nomadic ways and settled the first cities, they soon found that they had a need for more permanent and durable structures. The skill of masonry was developed to fill this need.

The earliest stone structures consisted of little more than rocks that were stacked atop one another to form crude walls. Artisans soon began to square off the rocks, forming them into regular shapes and stacking them. These early examples of masonry used no mortar the weight of the stacked stones provided overall strength and stability. Without the use of mortar and knowledge of architectural techniques, masonry was used primarily for simple structures such as fortifications. However, some examples of early masonry are quite spectacular, including the Great Pyramids in Egypt, which are still standing after thousands of years.
Masonry allows your workers to build Quarry improvements. It also enables construction of Walls and Aqueduct city improvements, as well as the Pyramids and Great Lighthouse wonders. 5TECH_MINING6TECH_MYSTICISM Mass Media Cost: 3600
+48 points.
                  Mass media refers to any form of communications that reaches a large number of people. Printing was an important early form of mass media later additions include the radio, cinema, television, and internet.

Mass media can be an extremely powerful force which can be used in a variety of savory and unsavory fashions. In many times and places, most or all outlets of mass media have been controlled by the state. In the United States, on the other hand, virtually all major forms of mass media are privately owned. The Internet is a new and special form of mass media which is difficult to control, as ownership is shared by everyone who has access to it.

In the Second World War, nations employed sophisticated print, radio and film mass media campaigns to dispense propaganda and to aid their war efforts. Leaders like Adolf Hitler, Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt were masterful speakers whose words - spread through the mass media - changed the world forever.
This technology allows construction of Broadcast Towers, as well as the Hollywood, Civilized Jewelers and United Nations wonders. 5TECH_RADIO Mathematics Cost: 250
Workers produce +50 % from Chopping.
+16 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 6000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Rudimentary arithmetic was purely quantitative, used to keep track of quantities and measurements in trade. Building on this fundamental base, ancient civilizations began to formulate more complex mathematical concepts. As early as 1800 BC, the Egyptians had developed a system for working with fractional numbers and simple algebraic problems. They also formulated geometric formulae for finding area and volume, and came up with a constant for determining the area of a circle that was very close to the value of pi. By about the 5th century BC, the mathematicians of Greece had greatly contributed to both geometry and algebra. Around the same time, advanced mathematics was applied to other sciences and fields of study such as astronomy and mechanics. One of the earliest applications of mathematical principles was in the construction of complex weaponry such as the catapult. Mathematics enables construction of the Aqueduct building and the Hanging Gardens wonder. 5TECH_WRITING Medicine Cost: 4500
+40 points.
                  Primitive man attributed the onset of serious disease as the influence of the gods, or possession by evil spirits. Over time, however, it was found that such "possessions" could be treated through the use of elixirs made from plant extracts. Methods were also developed to clean and treat wounds, and set fractured bones. The ancient Greeks established the first schools to teach medical sciences circa 500 BC. The texts produced by the students of these schools, most notably Hippocrates, who is considered the father of medicine, based his theories of the human body on observation and reasoning rather than supernatural intervention.

Continued study of diseases over the years, combined with the dissection and study of the human body in the 13th century, pointed out flaws in early Greek theories, and led to more accurate medical texts based on detailed analysis rather than conjecture. By the 18th century, the same methods of analysis and observation used by scientists in other fields were applied to the study of medicine. This paved the way for the increasingly effective methods of treatment and surgery that have prevailed over the last 200 years.
Medicine allows you to construct the Hospital city improvement, the Sid`s Sushi Co. wonder and the Red Cross national wonder. It enables the Environmentalism civic. TECH_OPTICS15TECH_BIOLOGY Meditation Cost: 80
+8 points.
                  Meditation is the practice of relaxing the body while calming and focusing the mind. Many religions - Buddhism, for example - see meditation as a religious ritual, but it is also widely used outside of religion.

According to Buddhism, meditation is a path to spiritual enlightenment. It allows one to gain wisdom and it provides refuge from the burden of karma and the toils and misery of daily existence. The Buddha himself gained great wisdom and knowledge of the nature of human suffering from meditating under a humble Bo tree.

Many people use meditation as a way to relieve the stress and strain of daily life. The Hindu practice of "yoga" is a formalized form of meditation that enjoys popularity across the globe. Meditation is widely believed to have healing powers, as it allows one`s mind to aid the body in overcoming injury and infirmities.
The first to research this tech founds Buddhism. It also allows you to build the Monastery city improvement and the Shwedagon Paya wonder. 5TECH_MYSTICISM Metal Casting Cost: 450
+16 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 4000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Metal casting is a way to fabricate metal objects. When subjected to extreme heat, metal melts into a liquid. The molten metal is poured into a mold, where it cools and returns to a solid state, holding the shape of the space inside the mold. Once the object is removed, the mold can be reused to make an identical object.

Metal casting is a complex process. First the mold is created. The "lost wax" process is an effective way to create a mold which has been in use since the Bronze Age. In this process the artisan creates in wax a replica, or "positive" copy, of the object to be cast. Then the artisan covers the wax object in clay. When fired in a kiln, the clay hardens around the wax, creating a "negative" image of the object. This is the mold. (The original wax positive melts during the process thus its title.) Molds are often created in two or more pieces so that the cast metal can be removed without destroying the mold.

Metal casting has some important advantages over earlier methods of working metals like blacksmithing. In blacksmithing, a smith heats and pounds metal until it achieves the required shape. This is a difficult process which requires a lot of skill. It`s also quite time-consuming, as the smith can only work on one object at a time. Metal casting, on the other hand, is much more efficient. Once a skilled craftsman creates a mold, it can be used over and over again by less-skilled workers, with a large degree of certainty that the finished objects will be identical. Indeed, a mold can be created that will produce multiple copies of smaller objects, such as spearheads and daggers.
Metal Casting allows you to build Forges, which increase city production. It also enables the Colossus wonder, and lets your workers build Workshop improvements. TECH_POTTERY15TECH_BRONZE_WORKING Military Science Cost: 2000
+32 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 12000.
                  While truly masterful works on war by men like Sun Tzu and Machiavelli have remained valuable since their creation, the acknowledgement of Military Science as a field of study separate from war itself only began in the seventeenth century. During the next two hundred years, numerous treatises on contemporary warfare surfaced. Two of the most influential military scientists of their times, Carl von Clausewitz and Antoine Henri-Jomini, birthed a rivalry that continues to this day, focused in large part on their major works, Clausewitz`s "On War" and Jomini`s "The Art of War."

In the modern era, Military Science has found a field of fresh minds with the establishment of military academies across the globe. West Point in the United States, Sandhurst in Great Britain and Saint-Cyr in France remain among the most renowned institution of learning in the world.
Military Science allows the construction of the Grenadier and the Ship of the Line units and the Military Academy building. It also allows access to the Blitz and Commando promotions. 5TECH_CHEMISTRY Military Tradition Cost: 2000
+32 points.
Enables defensive pact.
                  With the fall of the feudal system in Europe and the creation of standing armies, a new military tradition was born. Organizing soldiers based on their skill, experience, and understanding of tactics rather than their position of birth, the armies of post-feudal Europe were markedly different from their predecessors.

This change in the position of warfare also necessitated a change in the definition of the soldier, and with this transformation also came a strict code of conduct based on the old ideals of chivalry. The life of a professional soldier came to appeal to many who saw it as a career filled with opportunity for advancement, and now ordinary citizens were able to distinguish themselves in any number of specialized positions in military conflict.

The European military tradition arguably reached its highest point during the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte in France when, through military might, France gained control of the majority of European soil.
Military Tradition allows you to build powerful Cavalry and Cuirassier units (with Horseback Riding). It enables Defensive Pacts and construction of the West Point national wonder. TECH_MUSIC15TECH_NATIONALISM Mining Cost: 50
+8 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 2000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  There is evidence of surface mining dating back to prehistoric times. The first mining was probably for flint, which was used for knives, scrapers and arrowheads. The oldest known underground mine was in Swaziland over 40,000 years ago, to mine for ochre to use as a body pigment in ceremonies. During the Neolithic Age shafts were dug to extract flint from deeper in the earth. Gold, copper and silver were other minerals mined early in history. Mining allows your workers to build Mines on hills and certain resources, which increase your cities` production output. Monarchy Cost: 300
+16 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Rule by monarchy developed as a logical extension of the absolute rule of tribal chieftains. Many of the earliest monarchs, such as those in ancient Egypt, claimed that they ruled by divine right. In the spread of European monarchy during the Middle Ages, however, rulership was generally conveyed upon a leader who could most effectively raise and command an army.

Monarchies are dynastic, with rule of the country passing to the eldest son when the king dies or retires. Monarchs had absolute rule over their subjects, severely limiting the personal and economic freedom of all citizens except for nobility and the rich upper class. Although monarchies ruled most of Europe for centuries, the unhappiness of lower-class citizens eventually grew intolerable, causing several major revolutions. By the mid-18th century, the power of the European monarchs had been severely limited, paving the way for participatory systems of government.
Monarchy allows the Hereditary Rule civic, which provides happiness in cities when military units are stationed in them. It also enables Wineries. 5TECH_PRIESTHOOD6TECH_MONOTHEISM Monotheism Cost: 120
+8 points.
                  Monotheism is the belief that there is only one God. Perhaps the oldest monotheistic religion is Judaism. The original Israelites were polytheistic in a sense, since they did not deny the existence of other gods in addition to their own. However, after being exiled to Babylonia in 586 BC, the Judeans turned to a truly monotheistic religion, where the God of Israel was seen as the universal God ruling the destiny of all nations. The scriptures of Judaism became part of the teachings of the two most widespread monotheistic religions, Christianity and Islam. More developed than earlier polytheistic beliefs, monotheistic religions tend to encompass and structure the entire lifestyles of the people who practice them. The first to research this tech founds Judaism. It also enables the Organized Religion civic. TECH_MASONRY15TECH_POLYTHEISM Music Cost: 600
+24 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  Music finds a comfortable parallel with that of human language. Much as language has words, sentences, and stories, music has tones, melodies, and songs. The theory of music emphasizes the elements from which music is composed. One such structure is the melody, which is a grouping of musical notes that combine into a basic, but immensely flexible structure. Another is the chord, which is two or more notes played simultaneously to create a harmony. The impact of music throughout history can be clearly seen, as both entertainment and an art. The first to research Music receives a Great Artist. It also allows construction of Cathedrals and the Sistine Chapel wonder. TECH_MATHEMATICS15TECH_LITERATURE6TECH_DRAMA Mysticism Cost: 50
+8 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  People of the ancient world were fascinated and awed by the forces of nature surrounding them. Earthquakes, storms and other phenomena were generally regarded as signs from heaven. Individuals and groups arose to formulate explanations for these events, and pass the knowledge along to the tribe. The priests and priestesses of mysticism, who were often called oracles, claimed union with the divine through meditation and trance-like contemplation. Primitive mysticism offered mankind the first, tenuous links with the powers that shaped their world, and represented the first move toward the organized polytheistic and monotheistic religions to come. Mysticism allows Obelisks and the Stonehenge wonder. It also leads to Meditation and Polytheism, each of which give the first discoverer a religion. Nationalism Cost: 1800
+32 points.
                  Nationalism is the belief that the affairs of the nation are the primary concern of its citizens. A recent political phenomenon (the first major application taking place after the French Revolution), it has nonetheless become the overriding paradigm for modern world politics. It is important to know that nationalism can come in a variety of forms, some permutations bearing little resemblance to each other. Many early nationalistic leaders preached the superiority of their country over all others. While this type isn`t extinct today (as evidenced by the ethnocentric nationalism in the former Yugoslavia), most promote national determinism. Sanctioned by the United Nations, this is the belief that each nation should be responsible for its own growth and independence. Nationalism enables the Nationhood civic as well as construction of the Taj Mahal world wonder and the culturally-powerful Hermitage national wonder. TECH_CIVIL_SERVICE15TECH_DIVINE_RIGHT6TECH_PHILOSOPHY Optics Cost: 600
+24 points.
+1 sight across water.
                  Optics is the study of the behavior of light. In Civilization IV, the optics technology refers specifically to the branch of optics that concentrates upon improving human sight through the creation of optical instruments such as eye glasses, telescopes and microscopes. Advancements in optics had profound effects upon man`s interaction with the world around him.

It is not certain when the first working telescope was created. A number of lens-shaped crystals were found in a Viking grave dating from the 10th Century, but there is debate over whether these were purely decorative or were used to enhance vision. In 1609 Galileo created a "telescopium," which he used to study the stars. Accurate star charts allowed sailors to better chart their courses while at sea.

The Janssens, a family of Dutch spectacle makers, are claimed to have built the first working microscope in 1590 but once again, there is debate over that claim. And once again, Galileo is another candidate, credited with constructing his "occhiolino" in 1609. Anton van Leeuwenhoek famously used an early microscope to examine cells, bacteria, and other extremely small living creatures. This research was to revolutionize man`s understanding of biology and medicine.
Optics allows you to create Caravels, and allows your Work Boats can harvest Whale resources. Optics also increases your sight distance across water. TECH_MACHINERY15TECH_COMPASS Paper Cost: 600
+24 points.
Enables map trading.
                  When discovered, paper revolutionized information technology. Before the advent of paper, scholars and writers used a number of different materials upon which to record their words. These included clay tablets, animal skins, silk, and others. These suffered from many shortcomings. Clay was bulky and fragile, animal skins were expensive, silk was expensive and fragile, and so forth - and none of them would have been suitable for use in a printing press.

Papyrus was the earliest form of paper. It was created by cutting the stem of the papyrus plant into strips, which were laid in an overlapping pattern and pounded into a sheet. The material was then dried and polished. While serviceable, the resulting sheet is fairly thick and, more importantly, subject to rot in damp climates.

Paper as we know it today was invented in China in around 100 AD. Wood and other fibrous material is mixed with liquid and mashed into a pulp, which is then poured onto fine screens. The liquid drains away, leaving a thin layer of fibrous material on the wire. When this material dries, it becomes paper. The Chinese official Cai Lun is credited with adding cotton rags to the pulp the resulting paper was far sturdier than earlier versions. The Chinese process spread slowly throughout the world, reaching Europe around 1300 AD.

When paired with the printing press - yet another Chinese invention - paper exponentially increased the spread of information and art.
Paper allows you to trade world maps with other civilizations and construct the University of Sankore wonder. 5TECH_THEOLOGY6TECH_CIVIL_SERVICE Philosophy Cost: 800
+24 points.
                  The word "philosophy" comes from a Greek term meaning "love of wisdom." In ancient Greece, literacy and an interest in the natural world were common in a burgeoning upper class. In their leisure time, these people contemplated principles of thinking and being, logic and mathematics, and the natures of reality and existence. In ancient times, the study of philosophy was indistinguishable from the study of science, and many of the theories formulated by the early philosophers became the basis for studies in the fields of astronomy, medicine, chemistry, and physics. The teachings and writings of the ancient philosophers of Greece and the Orient also, in part, laid the groundwork for many of the world`s oldest organized religions. The first to research this tech founds Taoism. Philosophy enables the Pacifism civic and allows construction of the Angkor Wat wonder. TECH_MEDITATION15TECH_CODE_OF_LAWS6TECH_DRAMA Physics Cost: 4000
+40 points.
                  Physics is the study of the many forms of matter and energy and the way they interact with themselves and each other. A number of ancient races made observations about certain aspects of physics, such as planetary motion, but were unable to develop theories as to the reasons for these motions. Some of the earliest applications of physics were by the Greek mathematician Archimedes, who applied physics to create such devices as levers and screws. It was not until the 17th century that experimental methods and scientific measuring devices led to a true understanding of many fundamental physical laws. Early scientists such as Johannes Kepler and Sir Isaac Newton began to disprove the theories of the ancient Greek philosophers and scientifically prove their theories concerning the laws of physics. Discoveries in physics rarely have direct applications, however they do provide a basic understanding of the laws governing the universe, thus forming the basis for practical advances in technology. The first civilization to discover Physics receives a Great Scientist. It also enables the Airship unit and reveals the Uranium resource. TECH_ASTRONOMY15TECH_SCIENTIFIC_METHOD Plastics Cost: 7000
+48 points.
                  The creation of plastics in the 1860s revolutionized product manufacturing throughout the world. In the middle of the 19th century, scientists were looking for an inexpensive synthetic substance that could be used to replace natural materials which were expensive and difficult to procure. For example, ivory was used in many goods - utensils, fans, piano keys, and so forth. Ivory was attractive and comfortable to the touch, but it was becoming very expensive as the animal populations were depleted.

A plastic-like substance called "parkesine" was created in England in 1862, but the material proved unsatisfactory it became very brittle in a short period of time. In 1863 an American inventor named John Hyatt discovered a way to improve the flexibility and longevity of parkesine he called his new product "celluloid." Celluloid first gained widespread use as a material for making shirt cuffs and collars but it soon spread into other areas, including as a material for making movie and photographic film.

Over time, more advanced plastics were created these would see use as everything from fabric to eyeglass lenses to artificial hearts. In fact the modern world is largely built on plastic. This too has a price plastic`s very durability makes it increasingly difficult to dispose of without damaging the world`s fragile ecostructure.
Plastics enables Work Boats to construct Offshore Platforms. It also lets you build Hydro Plants and the Standard Ethanol and Three Gorges Dam wonders, and obsoletes Fur. TECH_COMBUSTION15TECH_INDUSTRIALISM Polytheism Cost: 100
+8 points.
                  Polytheism is the belief that the world and the environment is ruled or controlled by a number of different gods or divinities. Many ancient religions were polytheistic, notably those of the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Norse, and the Romans. Often, polytheistic religions have different gods for each force of nature and earthly phenomenon for instance: a sun god, a moon god, a god of thunder, a god of the forests, and so forth. The reason for such diversity in divine beings probably stems from ancient civilizations attempting to find explanations for natural events they could not understand. The first to research this tech founds Hinduism. It also enables you to build the Parthenon and Temple of Artemis wonders. 5TECH_MYSTICISM Pottery Cost: 80
+8 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  The invention of pottery was essential to the development of agricultural societies. To get the most out of seasonal crops and domesticated animals, a tribe needed sturdy, waterproof containers in which to store and protect surplus food. The discovery of the properties of clay, and the invention of the kiln and the potter`s wheel made it possible to build such containers. The earliest examples of Western pottery date back to as early as 6500 BC. Most of the examples from this period were strictly utilitarian. Although use continued to be primarily practical, decorative pottery soon became a ritualistic and aesthetic art form in cultures all over the world. Some of the most impressive examples of artistic pottery comes from the pre-Columbian cultures of South America, and from the Ming dynasty in 14th century China. Pottery allows your workers to construct Cottages, which generate commerce for your civilization. It enables construction of the Granary city improvement. TECH_THE_WHEEL15TECH_AGRICULTURE6TECH_FISHING Priesthood Cost: 60
+8 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  A priest is a person who leads worshippers in performing religious ceremonies and rituals. The position was of extraordinary importance in early cultures, since men believed that their day-to-day survival depended upon the favor of the gods. The earliest priests were probably elderly men and women too infirm to hunt and gather, but revered for their holiness and wisdom. As the lines between the spiritual and physical were much less rigid than today, priests might also be the tribal healers or leaders.

Many branches of Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism still employ priests, and though their secular power is greatly diminished, in recent years priests have played important roles in getting societies to adopt social changes that benefit the people. In South America, priests are famous (or infamous) for their active participation in politics, while the late Pope John Paul II, the highest-ranking Roman Catholic priest, is given credit for hurrying the demise of the Soviet Union.
Priesthood allows you to build Temples in cities (if a religion is present), which increase happiness and culture. It also enables the Oracle wonder. 5TECH_MEDITATION6TECH_POLYTHEISM Printing Press Cost: 1600
+32 points.
                  The principle behind printing is not very complicated, but immense amounts of complexity are invested in the mass production of printed documents. Invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century, the early printing presses used a flat tray of inked type. Once paper was placed over the type, a surface was applied and the ink was pressed into the paper. While an improvement over the traditional duplication methods of the time (being meticulous hand-scribing of volumes), it was a slow and tedious process to use. Around 1800 the first cylinder press was created, followed by the large and immensely fast rotary presses.

Today, computers have taken this ancient art out of the craftsman`s workshop and placed it on the desktop. Desktop publishing revolutionized the creation of printed documents, not only from the standpoint of speed and accuracy, but also by enabling anyone to mass-produce the printed word without investing the many years it takes to learn the trade.
Printing Press increases the gold output of Villages and Towns. TECH_MACHINERY1TECH_ALPHABET25TECH_PAPER Radio Cost: 6000
+48 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 4000.
                  Prior to Guglielmo Marconi`s invention of the radio in 1896, long-distance communication was carried out either by mail or over miles of cable via telegraph. Marconi`s first demonstration of the radiotelegraph transmitted a message just over one mile without the use of wires. Continued improvements increased transmission range to over 200 miles by early 1901, and by the end of the year a single letter ("A") had been transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean. By 1905, many ships were equipped with radiotelegraphs for ship-to-ship and ship-to-land communications, and by 1915 the invention of the three-element vacuum tube, or triode, made it possible to regularly transmit voice messages over the airwaves. Throughout the years, radio has been refined not only for communication, but for detection and ranging (Radar) and astronomy. Radio enables the powerful Bomber (with Flight) and Guided Missile (with Rocketry) units, plus the Attack Submarine (with Combustion) and Submarine units. It also allows you to build the Eiffel Tower, Cristo Redentor and Rock N Roll wonders. 5TECH_ELECTRICITY Railroad Cost: 4500
+40 points.
                  The predecessors to modern railroads were wagonways, which were constructed in England starting in the 16th century. Wagonways were roads of parallel planks upon which coal wagons were pulled by horses at a greater speed than would have been possible on dirt roads. Wagonways were gradually improved by adding cross-ties and iron strips to reinforce the track. Eventually, the planks became metal rails, and evolved into the type of rails used on today`s railroads by the start of the 19th century. Soon after the steam locomotive was introduced in 1829, it replaced horse-drawn wagons, giving birth to the railroad. Originally developed in Britain and the eastern United States as a method of hauling heavy mining ores and freight, railroads outshone canals in their ability to operate across any ground and in nearly any weather. When railroads started carrying passengers as well as goods, the potential for safe, fast, inexpensive transport became clear. Railroads led to a dramatic increase in the amount of cargo, passengers, news, and troops that could be moved quickly over great distances. Railroad allows construction of Machine Gun units and the Mining Inc wonder. Most importantly, with Coal or Oil it allows your workers to upgrade your Roads to Railroads, vastly increasing your units` movement. TECH_STEAM_POWER15TECH_STEEL Refrigeration Cost: 4000
+48 points.
                  Refrigeration is the technology of cooling objects to temperatures below the current ambient temperature. In addition to its most obvious function of chilling or freezing foods to delay spoilage, refrigeration plays a vital part in modern human civilization. Air conditioners allow people to live and function in environments that would otherwise be too hot. And many mechanical and electronic devices require cooling to function properly.

A number of advanced technologies are heavily dependent upon refrigeration. Superconductors, for instance, function best at extremely low temperatures. Space ships and suits must be refrigerated if their inhabitants are to survive in direct sunlight. And the interruption of a nuclear reactor`s cooling system is likely to have extremely unfortunate consequences for those nearby.

The invention of the first modern refrigeration system is in dispute, with scientists from England, Australia, Germany and the United States laying claim to the honor. The earliest refrigeration machines were built to make ice they were constructed in the 1850s. The first home refrigeration systems were constructed around 1900, and the first air conditioning systems were implemented several years later. Residential air conditioners began to gain widespread use in the United States in the 1950s.
Refrigeration allows construction of the Supermarket building and the Cereal Mills wonder. It also increases your water units` movement speed. TECH_BIOLOGY15TECH_ELECTRICITY Replaceable Parts Cost: 1800
+32 points.
                  With the advent of machine manufacturing, craftsmen were able to set manufacturing to exacting specifications. One advantage of this was being able to manufacture complex objects, such as guns, in separate pieces. The benefit of this was realized when manufacturers replaced only the broken parts of the objects that they made rather than replacing or repairing the entire instrument. By setting machine manufacturing guidelines, manufacturers were able to make large quantities of the components of their products and then later assemble the finished product, increasing efficiency greatly. Replaceable parts revolutionized nearly every industry in the industrial age, paving the way for mass production and assembly line manufacture. Replaceable Parts enables workers to produce Lumbermills. It increases the production output of Windmills and Watermills. TECH_BANKING15TECH_PRINTING_PRESS Rifling Cost: 2400
+32 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 12000.
                  "Rifling" is the term describing the practice of putting helical grooves in the barrel of a "long gun" to impart a spin to the projectile. This spin greatly increases the bullet`s accuracy at distance.

Muskets, the original long guns, were "smoothbores" these lacked rifling and the bullets were significantly smaller than the barrels of the weapons. When fired, the projectile would bounce against the sides of the weapon`s barrel, giving it an uncertain direction upon exiting the barrel.

Experimentation with muskets with grooved barrels and tighter-fitting projectiles began as early as the 15th Century, but mass-produced rifled muskets did not appear in great numbers until the mid-1800s. The rifled musket was the standard infantry weapon during the American Civil War some cavalrymen were armed with breech-loading rifles, the weapons` accuracy and rate of firing giving them a powerful advantage in combat.
Rifling enables Rifleman units and is required to build many other powerful modern units. TECH_GUNPOWDER15TECH_REPLACEABLE_PARTS Robotics Cost: 8000
+48 points.
                  The creation of machines to assist in, and increase the efficiency of, the manufacturing process gave birth to the factory system of production and started the Industrial Revolution. The invention of digital computers in the late 1940s, and their refinement over the next several decades, took factory automation one step further. Computer-controlled machines, called robots, were designed to perform repetitive or dangerous tasks more quickly than humans. Experimental robots capable of simple manipulation of objects were in operation by the late 1960s. General Motors commissioned the first robots used on an assembly line in the 1970s. Constant improvements in the computer field have allowed the production of incredibly versatile robots, capable of performing a wide variety of tasks under virtually any environmental condition. Robots today are widely used in manufacturing, scientific research, and space exploration. Robotics enables the extremely powerful Mechanized Infantry, Missile Cruiser, Stealth Destroyer and Stealth Bomber units. It lets you build the Space Elevator wonder. 5TECH_COMPUTERS Rocketry Cost: 5000
+48 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 10000.
                  Rockets are projectiles that are propelled by the expulsion of gases generated in a combustion chamber. The first solid-fuel rockets, invented by the Chinese in the 13th century, used a mixture similar to gunpowder for fuel. Although rockets were used in warfare to set fire to buildings and the sails of ships for nearly 500 years, it wasn`t until the early 19th century that the first crude explosive rockets were used in battle.

Research and design efforts by scientists such as Robert Goddard in the 20th century refined rocket design to produce faster, better controlled rockets. During World War II, this new technology was used to create the German V-2, the first true guided missile. Scientific developments since World War II have been applied to adapt the rocket for use in even more powerful and accurate weapons with incredible range. The rocket is also used in peaceful application such as the launch of satellites and the exploration of space.
Rocketry allows you to build SAM Infantry, Guided Missiles and Attack Submarines (with Radio), and ICBMs and Tactical Nukes (with Fission). It enables the COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTApollo Program and Aluminum Co wonder. TECH_RIFLING15TECH_FLIGHT6TECH_ARTILLERY Sailing Cost: 100
+8 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 2000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
Enables on coast and rivers.
                  The first sails were probably just a square sheet of animal skin hung from a horizontal pole, while later woven cloths were stretched between poles. While this does allow sailing, there are several problems with these designs. First, the boat can only sail downwind, meaning movement is only possible in the direction the wind is blowing secondly, this only allows the boat to travel at the speed of the wind. Sail design evolved slowly over the centuries, and eventually the concepts of tacking and trimming started to be understood, allowing sailing to be against the wind and faster than the wind speed. These advancements enabled the exploration and settlement of far off lands, as ships were able to return from uncharted waters. Sailing allows you to build the Galley unit. It also enables trading along coasts and rivers, as well as the construction of the Lighthouse city improvement and the Moai Statues. 5TECH_FISHING Satellites Cost: 6000
+48 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 4000.
                  Artificial satellites are spacecraft that maintain an orbit around a celestial body. What differentiates an orbit from other types of space flight is it doesn`t require any additional propulsion. Satellites can hold a number of different orbits. One type is a polar orbit, which causes the spacecraft to pass over the north and south poles. Another is an equatorial orbit, which causes the satellite to circle the Earth`s equator. The farther the orbit from the surface of the earth, the longer it takes to complete a circuit of the earth. If the vessel uses an equatorial orbit at a distance of 22,300 miles from Earth, it can achieve geo-synchronous orbit, which causes the satellite to remain stationary over a specific area. Satellites reveals the world map. It lets you build the COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTSS Docking Bay spaceship part and enables construction of the COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTSpace Elevator wonder. TECH_RADIO15TECH_ROCKETRY Scientific Method Cost: 2400
+40 points.
                  Mankind has always pursued an understanding of the universe that surrounds them. The scientific method lays down the blueprints for transmuting a theory into scientific law. The first step is to identify a process or phenomenon and begin to gather information about it. From this data, the scientist forms a hypothesis about the workings of the process observed. He or she then proceeds to run a series of experiments to gather additional information that substantiates or disproves their theory. If the theory can co-exist with the findings, it can then be called a scientific law. This is not to say that it cannot be disproved, as many such laws have become false as technology and new ideas are brought to bear. Scientific Method reveals the Oil resource and allows construction of the Forest Preserve improvement. It makes the Great Library, The Parthenon, The Temple of Artemis and Monasteries obsolete. TECH_PRINTING_PRESS15TECH_CHEMISTRY6TECH_ASTRONOMY Stealth Cost: 8000
+48 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 5000.
                  Throughout the majority of history, warriors have used primitive methods to avoid detection by their foes. But as surveillance technology grew more sophisticated with the invention of radar, new countermeasures became necessary to provide the sort of protection that the cloak of darkness once granted. Combining advances in the fields of composites, engineering and electronics, Stealth technology has made it possible for enormous machines to leave nary a blip on enemy radar. The B2, or "Stealth," Bomber uses a unique shape and radar-resistant materials to avoid detection. Similar techniques have been applied to ships like the French La Fayette frigate, making them near invisible to radar and easily overlooked whilst they prowl the seas. Researching Stealth allows the construction of Stealth Bombers and Stealth Destroyers. TECH_COMPOSITES15TECH_ADVANCED_FLIGHT Steam Power Cost: 3200
Workers build improvements +50% faster.
+40 points.
                  The steam engine is a device that uses steam to generate power. Water, heated by burning fuel (usually coal or wood), turns to steam. The steam is contained in a chamber where it builds up pressure, causing a piston to move. The piston drives a turbine, the rotation of which produces power, which can be use for such purposes as producing motion or generating electricity. The early principles of this device were understood as early as the late 17th century, but it wasn`t until 1769 that Scottish engineer James Watt patented a practical design for what was to become the basis for the modern steam engine. The invention of the steam engine led to a number of landmark developments, including the steam locomotive and the earliest examples of automobiles. Steam engines remained the chief means of motive power in the transportation industry until the invention of the more powerful and compact internal combustion engine. Steam turbines are still in use today in a number of applications including the generation of electrical power. Steam Power reveals the Coal resource and causes workers to build improvements 50%% faster. It also enables the Ironclad (with Steel) and the Levee building. It obsoletes the Hagia Sophia. TECH_CHEMISTRY15TECH_REPLACEABLE_PARTS Steel Cost: 2800
+40 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 4000.
                  The iron alloys produced up until about the 14th century were made by heating a mixture of iron ore and charcoal in a forge, then pounding the molten metal to drive out the impurities or "slag". Occasionally, the iron mixture would absorb more carbon, creating steel rather than wrought iron. Because steel proved to be less brittle and more resistant to corrosion than iron, techniques were developed to produce steel. Blowing a coal derivative called coke through molten iron did this. Most modern steel making utilizes the "blast furnace", developed by Henry Bessemer in 1855, to accomplish this task on a large-scale basis. The strength and other qualities of steel make it the material of choice for warships, planes, and many other vehicles. Steel enables you to build Cannon and Ironclads (with Steam Power). It also enables construction of the Drydocks building and the Ironworks national wonder. TECH_IRON_WORKING15TECH_CHEMISTRY Superconductors Cost: 6500
+48 points.
                  Superconductivity is a property of certain metals and ceramics that allows them to conduct electricity with absolutely no resistance. This superconductive property only emerges at extremely cold temperatures, meaning that their creation demands an in-depth knowledge of low-temp techniques.

Since its discovery, the superconductor has found its way into high-power magnets, MRIs (magnetic resonance imagers) and power storage devices that would never have been possible without its unique properties. An interesting side effect of the superconductor is the production of a powerful magnetic field that can produce a levitating effect, called the Meissner Effect, which some hope to translate into the hovering vehicles that were once nothing more than the dreams of science-fiction fans.
Superconductors allow the construction of the Laboratory and COLOR_PROJECT_TEXTSS Thrusters. 5TECH_REFRIGERATION6TECH_COMPUTERS Theology Cost: 500
+24 points.
                  Theology is the study of God and religious truth. Theologians take a more or less scientific approach to questions of religion, deeply studying the underlying meaning of scriptures and religious teachings rather than "taking them on faith". Theological seminaries teach courses of study in theology to prepare people as priests and clergymen. Many of the earliest colleges of the western world were originally established for this purpose. Theological study helped to remove some of the superstitions that had surrounded religion for so long, and brought religious study into a more enlightened age. The first to research this tech founds Christianity. It enables the Theocracy civic and allows construction of the Hagia Sophia and Apostolic Palace wonders. TECH_WRITING15TECH_MONOTHEISM The Wheel Cost: 60
+8 points.
Founding this technology raising your army in demography by 4000.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
                  The invention of the wheel represented a major turning point in human civilization. The first wheels, disks carved from solid wood, may have been built as early as 3500 BC. The earliest use of this device was the potter`s wheel, used to spin and shape clay pottery. It was not long before the true potential of the wheel was discovered, and wheeled carts soon replaced the sledge as a means of transportation. Rapid developments, such as wheels consisting of a ring with radial spokes, made the wheel even more practical by reducing its weight. By using the wheel, mankind gained the ability to work more efficiently and travel more quickly. Besides its use in transportation, the wheel went on to become the basic principle behind almost every mechanical device. The Wheel allows you to build Chariot units. More importantly, it allows your workers to build Roads. Communism Cost: 2800
+40 points.
Enables permanent alliance.
                  Communism is a conceptualized system of government in which resources and production facilities are the property of the entire society rather than individuals. In a communist society, labor is shared equally as well, and the benefits of labor are distributed according to need. Under such a system, all people would be equal, without class stratification.

Although the basic idea of communism has existed since the time of Plato, modern communism is identified with the system of government described by Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels in the "Communist Manifesto". They believed that capitalistic systems, in which the rich upper class prospered through the exploitation of the powerless lower class, were bound to destroy themselves. At this point, the poor would rebel against their former oppressors and form a classless society. This prophecy has never come true, and countries that have attempted to base their governments on communism have ultimately failed to achieve the utopia described by Marx and Engels.
Communism enables the State Property civic and Permanent Alliances. It also allows construction of the Intelligence Agency building and the Kremlin world wonder. The first to research Communism receives a free Great Spy unit. TECH_LIBERALISM15TECH_SCIENTIFIC_METHOD Writing Cost: 120
+8 points.
Can be founded in Tribal Village.
Enables open borders.
                  Wynalezienie pisma uwaëane jest za jeden z najwaëniejszych punktów zwrotnych w historii naszej cywilizacji. Najstarszymi zachowanymi znakami sá rozmaite obrazki i symbole, wykorzystywane do opisywania rachunków i zliczania inwentarza. Niektóre plemiona do zapisywania swej historii stosowaôy piktogramy. Wiele lat póéniej opracowano alfabet, system znaków, który umoëliwiaô zapisanie wszystkich znanych czôowiekowi sôów. Skrybowie zastápili wówczas mówców i powierników tajemnic. Pismo umoëliwiôo równieë przechowywanie informacji w formie uôatwiajácej przekazywanie ich osobom trzecim. Od tej pory idee, wydarzenia historyczne i wiedza mogôy byâ przechowywane i darowane innym plemionom, w sposób daleko bardziej wiarygodny nië metodá tradycyjná, tj. ustnie. Writing enables you to construct Libraries, which boost research. It also allows you to sign Open Borders trading agreements with other civilizations. 5TECH_PRIESTHOOD6TECH_ANIMAL_HUSBANDRY7TECH_POTTERY

Unique unit:

Airship

Unique building:

Academy

First colony:

American Empire

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